Scholars trace the origins of the modern holiday The Day of the Dead (El Día de los Muertos or All Souls' Day) to indigenous observances dating back thousands of years, and to an Aztec festival dedicated to a goddess called Mictecacihuatl. Similar holidays are celebrated in many parts of the world; for example, it's a public holiday (Dia de Finados) in Brazil, where many Brazilians celebrate by visiting cemeteries and churches. In Spain, there are festivals and parades, and at the end of the day, people gather at cemeteries and pray for their loved ones who have died. Similar observances occur elsewhere in Europe and in the Philippines, and similarly-themed celebrations appear in many Asian and African cultures.
La Calavera Catrina is a 1913 zinc etching by Mexican printmaker José Guadalupe Posada. Meant to satirize the life of the upper classes during the reign of Porfirio Díaz, the image has since become a staple of Mexican imagery, and is often incorporated into artistic manifestations of the Day of the Dead.